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Water and Sanitation


The Government of India has prioritized rural sanitation under the Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin (SBM-G) – Clean India Campaign for rural India with a prime objective of making India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by 2019. To support the achievement of SBM-G-targets, the World Bank Group (WBG) is providing a USD 1.5 billion loan to the Government of India as performance incentives for sanitation improvement in rural areas and support to the National Ministry for strengthening institutional capacities on program management, advocacy, and communications. In addition, a Technical Assistance (TA) program has been initiated, to strengthen SBM-G program delivery institutions at the national level, and in select states such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand.
The rural sanitation sector in the country has undergone shifts in its approach to achieve better outcomes. These are caused by the realization that conventional approaches, which had focused on targeting individual households with upfront hardware subsidies have been unable to convince entire communities to adopt safe sanitation practices even when combined with an emphasis on behavior change.The Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach on the other hand tends to concentrate more on achieving community-wide sanitary behavior outcomes supported by appropriate ways to ignite change and a recognition of the leading role of communities in securing the desired outcome of an open defecation free environment. CLTS primarily focuses on ending open defecation by the entire community and environmentally safe confinement of human waste, along with overall improvement of the environment. The approach promotes an intervention that ‘triggers’ the community into changing their sanitation practices throughout the community, at an accelerated pace. The community, empowered as a result of the participatory self-analysis of its sanitation situation, takes responsibility to change the sanitation practices of all, seeks to support the marginalized members through appropriate support and ensures sustainability through local level monitoring. Along with ensuring sustainable behavior change, field-level experiences have demonstrated the importance of ensuring that households and users have access to a range of appropriate safe sanitation technology options suitable for different geographical contexts.
The large-scale replication of such a participatory approach to rural sanitation requires extensive focus on capacity building of a range of key stakeholders especially those who motivate communities. Concurrent assessments of SBM-G undertaken by the WBG have identified an urgent need of strengthening training capacity in the states to develop sufficient human resource capacity at the district and block levels to plan and implement successful district-wide ODF campaigns.
At the state level, the WBG TA for SBM-G focusses on:
(1) Strengthen institutional systems and processes for effective delivery of SBM-G;
(2) Learning and sharing knowledge; and,
(3) Monitoring and adaptive management.
As a part to operationalize this programmatic TA, the WBG has engaged TRIOs Development Support (P) Ltd to develop technical training capacity in the area of facilitating ODF campaign in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand.
As per the objective of this assignment, TRIOs is supporting the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand in strengthening their existing technical training capacity in the areas of participatory approaches to rural sanitation for SBM-G through State level specialized technical experts deployed in these states.